Printed Circuit Board Introduction & PCB Types
PCB stands for Printed Circuit Board that is a board printed from software design on PC, then connecting electronics devices to complete the concluded circuit.
PCB ‘s designing is the process of personal creation. When designing PCB, manufacturers need to know clearly about environmental objectives, telecommunication, calculation, and arrangement of an electronic component to be consistent in the minimal circuit.
Despite being most often associated with computers, PCBs can be found in many other electronic devices, such as Cell phones, Television, Camera. In a word, manufacturers use different types of PCBs in a variety of fields, including:
• Medical devices.
There are denser electronics products with less power than previous generations; it helps testing new medical technology quickly. Used a high-density PCB, most medical devices create the smallest and densest design. This leads to reducing some of the curb involved with developing devices for the medical field due to the essentials of small size and lightweight. From small devices to too much larger devices use PCBs like pacemakers, X-ray equipment, or CAT scan machines.
• Industrial machinery.
In the high – powered industrial machinery, manufacturers use PCBs popularly. If the current one-ounce copper PCBs do not meet the requirements, manufacturers utilize thick copper PCBs instead. Examples of cases that thicker copper PCBs are beneficial to include high-current battery chargers, motor controllers, and industrial load testers.
When LED-based lighting solutions catch on in popularity because the power consumed lowly and efficiently, so people use aluminum-backed PCBs to make them as well. These PCBs play a role as heat sinks and allow for higher levers of heat transfer than a standard PCB. These same aluminum-backed PCBs design from the basis for high-lumen LED applications and essential lighting solutions.
• Automotive and aerospace industries.
Manufacturers use flexible PCBs which are designed to withstand the high-vibration environments a lot in both automotive and aerospace industries. Because of specification and design, flexibles PCBs can be very lightweight, which is a necessity when manufacturing parts for transportation industries. They can accommodate the tight spaces which can present in these applications, such as inside instrument panels or behind the instrument gauge on a dashboard.
PCB boards include several overall types with their manufacturing specification, material types and usages like Single-layer PCBs, Double-layer PCBs, Multi-layer PCBs, Rigid PCBs, Flexible PCBs, Rigid-Flex PCBs, High-frequency PCBs, Aluminum-backed PCBs.
Single-layer boards have components on one side of the board and a conductor pattern on the opposite side. They have just one layer of conductive material, typically copper. A single-layer PCBs consist of a substrate layer, a conductive metal layer, and then a protective solder mask and silk-screen. Currently, there are many ways in different types of devices such as in calculators and power supplies, etc. A single layer rigid PCB is shown in the figure above.
If single-sided PCBs have one conductive surface, double-sided PCBs have a conductive layer on each side. Circuit copper layers and solder mask surround dielectric layer on both sides. Vias approve manufacturers to create traces on both sides that route around each other and connect between layers. Manufacturers use double-sided PCBs for products that need a beginner to intermediate level of circuit intricacy.
A combination of one – or two-player printed circuit board and features more sophisticated design than Double Sided PCB that calls Multi-layer PCBs. Many double-sided boards together with insulating material incorporated into the multiplayer board. It must contain at least three conductive layers that are immersed at the core of the insulating material.
Rigid PCB which cannot be twisted or folder into any shape because it comes with FR4 stiffener. They are handy for the added amount of stiffness and rigidity. Copper trances and paths are incorporated on a single board to connect the different components on the board that made up Rigid PCB. The base material of the PCBs is made of the rigid substrate, which gives rigidity and strength to the board.
Flexible printed circuits were initially designed as a replacement for traditional wire harnesses. A flexible circuit within its purest form is the numbers of conductors bonded to a thin dielectric film. They are the same with rigid PCBs that come in single, double or multilayer formats. Flexible PCBs offer many advantages more than rigid PCBs like flexible, folded over edges, and wrapped around corners.
Flex-rigid PCBs are boards which using a combination of flexible and rigid board technologies in an application. Most flex-rigid PCBs consist of multiple layers of flexible circuit substrates attached to one or more rigid boards externally an internally, depending on the design of the application.
High-frequency PCBs refers to a general PCB design element, rather than a type of PCB construction like the previous models. They are circuit boards which are designed to transmit signals over one gigahertz.
People design aluminum-backed PCBs in much the same way as their copper-backed counterparts. But, instead of the usual fiberglass used in the most PCB board types, aluminum-backed PCBs make use of aluminum or copper substrate board.
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